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Thromb Res. 2006;118(3):397-407. Epub 2005 Jun 28.

Thromboembolic complications in the nephrotic syndrome: pathophysiology and clinical management.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, McMaster University, 25 Charlton Avenue East, Suite 708, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N lY2.


Patients with the nephrotic syndrome are at increased risk of developing venous and arterial thromboembolism, the most common of which is renal vein thrombosis. There are several unanswered or controversial issues relating to the nephrotic syndrome and thromboembolism, which include the mechanism of thromboembolism, and optimal diagnostic and anticoagulant management strategies. This review will discuss several of these issues: the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of thromboembolic disease occurring in patients with the nephrotic syndrome; the pathophysiology of the hypercoagulable state associated with the nephrotic syndrome; the diagnosis of renal vein thrombosis in the nephrotic syndrome; and the evidence for prophylactic and therapeutic anticoagulation strategies in such patients.

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