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Langmuir. 2004 Jun 22;20(13):5196-200.

Temperature driven morphological changes of chemically precipitated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles.


Hydroxyapatite (HA) is synthesized by a wet chemical route using calcium hydroxide and ortho-phosphoric acid at various temperatures (40, 80, and 100 degrees C). X-ray diffraction of the precipitate particles revealed HA as the predominant phase (>99%) with a small amount of beta-tricalcium phosphate. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the presence of carbonate substitution, which decreased with increasing temperature. Transmission electron microscopy observations revealed needle-shaped particles with a high aspect ratio at 40 degrees C, which changed to spheroidal when the precipitation temperature was increased to 100 degrees C. The changes in the morphology with temperature were analyzed taking into account the driving force for the HA precipitation and the supersaturation level of Ca2+ and PO4(3-) ions with respect to HA. The analysis indicated that the supersaturation level of the reactants, especially the concentration of Ca2+ ions, played a predominant role on the precipitate morphology for this classical acid-base reaction.

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