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Langmuir. 2004 Jun 8;20(12):5038-45.

Electrochemical and atomic force microscopy study of carbon surface modification via diazonium reduction in aqueous and acetonitrile solutions.

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1
MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Abstract

Electrochemical reduction of the diazonium salts of 4-nitrobenzene and 4-nitroazobenzene-4'- has been investigated in aqueous acid and acetonitrile media at carbon surfaces. Using pyrolyzed photoresist films as the substrate, we have examined the deposited films using electrochemistry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Film thicknesses were measured by scratching through the film with an AFM tip. The procedure employed two AFM cantilevers with different lengths, located on the one device. When the shorter cantilever engages the surface in tapping mode, the longer cantilever (which is not resonating) imbeds into the surface with a constant force. For both modifiers and modification media, film thicknesses increase with deposition time to a limiting value. With equivalent modification conditions, films prepared in aqueous acid medium have lower limiting thicknesses than those prepared in acetonitrile. For nitrophenyl (NP) films, the same trends are found when calculating surface coverages from the charge associated with the reduction of surface -Ar-NO2 groups. Lower limiting film thicknesses and surface coverages for films prepared in aqueous conditions is attributed to growth of inherently more blocking films and is supported by examination of the response of the Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) couple at NP-modified surfaces. Combination of voltammetrically determined surface coverage and film thickness data yields a surface coverage of -Ar-NO2 groups of (2.5 +/- 0.5) x 10(-10) mol cm(-2) for a film thickness equivalent to a monolayer of NP groups.

PMID:
15984266

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