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Histopathology. 2005 Jul;47(1):57-66.

Expression of augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) in human liver cirrhosis and carcinoma.

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Department of Surgery, Ludwig Maximillians University of Munich Hospital Grosshadern, Munich, Germany.



To determine the expression of a protein termed augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR), recently found to have a specific and beneficial effect on the process of liver regeneration in normal and diseased human liver.


ALR expression in normal and cirrhotic human livers with various underlying diseases as well as in tissue samples of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC) was analysed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transciptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Expression analysis of ALR in total liver protein extracts by Western blotting showed mainly dimeric ALR protein. Immunohistochemically, cytosolic and perinuclear immunosignals were found in hepatocytes and cholangiocytes in normal, cirrhotic or cancerous liver tissue and only weak signals in some endothelial cells in normal livers. Quantitative mRNA analysis revealed significantly increased ALR expression in cirrhosis compared with normal liver tissue. In HCC and CCC ALR mRNA expression was also significantly enhanced compared with normal liver tissue, but expression levels did not differ from the matching non-neoplastic tissue in the same patient.


The findings suggest an important role for ALR in hepatocellular regeneration in liver cirrhosis as well as in hepatocarcinogenesis and therefore its potential value in the clinical diagnosis of hepatic cirrhosis and cancer.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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