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Clin Ther. 2005 May;27(5):554-67.

Metabolic effects of pioglitazone in combination with insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus whose disease is not adequately controlled with insulin therapy: results of a six-month, randomized, double-blind, prospective, multicenter, parallel-group study.

Author information

1
Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a progressive disease. Initial therapy begins with dietary and lifestyle modifications. However, as the disease progresses, glycemic control becomes more difficult to attain, often requiring > or =1 oral antihyperglycemic medication (OAM), and finally the addition of insulin to the OAMs and insulin monotherapy.

OBJECTIVE:

This study was designed to determine the effect of pioglitazone 30 mg plus insulin (PIO + INS) versus placebo plus insulin (PLB + INS) on glycemic control, the serum lipid profile, and selected cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 DM whose disease was inadequately controlled with insulin therapy alone despite efforts to intensify such treatment.

METHODS:

This was a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, prospective, multicenter, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Patients with type 2 DM and a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) value > or =7.5% who were using insulin (with or without OAMs) entered a 3-month insulin intensification phase to achieve blood glucose targets with insulin monotherapy. After insulin intensification, those patients with HbA(1c) values > or =7.0% were randomized to PIO + INS or PLB + INS. The primary end point was the change in HbA(1c) from baseline. Cardiovascular risk markers (highly sensitive C-reactive protein [hs CRP] and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1]) were measured at baseline and end point.

RESULTS:

Of the 289 patients randomized to treatment (mean [SD] age, 58.9 [7.1] years; 164 women, 125 men), 142 received PIO + INS and 147 received PLB + INS. A total of 263 patients completed the study. After 6 months, PIO + INS reduced mean HbA(1c) (-0.69%; P < 0.002) and mean fasting plasma glucose ([FPG] -1.45 mmol/L; P < 0.002) from baseline. PLB + INS produced no significant changes in HbA(1c) or FPG. The between-treatment differences for HbA(1c) (-0.55%; P < 0.002) and FPG (-1.80 mmol/L; P < 0.002) occurred despite a reduction of insulin dose in the PIO + INS group from baseline (-0.16 U/d . kg; P < 0.002). Significant between-group differences were observed for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.13 mM; P < 0.002), triglycerides (ratio of geometric mean [PIO/PLB], 0.871; P < 0.01), atherogenic index of plasma (-0.11; P < 0.002), PAI-1 (-5.10 U/mL; P < 0.001), and hs CRP (-1.47 mg/L; P < 0.05). The rate of clinical and biochemical hypoglycemia (blood glucose <2.8 mmol/L) did not differ statistically between treatment groups, but reported incidences of subjective hypoglycemia occurred more often with PIO + INS than with PLB + INS (90 vs 75; P < 0.05). Edema was more common with PIO + INS than with PLB + INS (20 vs 5 instances, respectively), as was gain (mean [SEM]) in body weight (4.05 [4.03] vs 0.20 [2.92] kg, respectively).

CONCLUSION:

Adding pioglitazone to insulin in these study patients with type 2 DM whose disease was inadequately controlled with insulin monotherapy further improved their glycemic control.

PMID:
15978304
DOI:
10.1016/j.clinthera.2005.05.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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