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Dent Clin North Am. 2005 Jul;49(3):517-32, v-vi.

Epidemiology and risk factors of periodontal diseases.

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Department of Periodontology, Temple University School of Dentistry, 3223 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA.


Periodontal diseases are chronic inflammatory disorders encompassing destructive and nondestructive diseases of the periodontal supporting tissues of teeth. Gingivitis is a nondestructive disease ubiquitous in populations of children and adults globally. Aggressive periodontitis is characterized by severe and rapid loss of periodontal attachment often commencing at or after the circumpubertal age and is more prevalent among Latin Americans and subjects of African descent, and least common among Caucasians. Chronic periodontitis is a common disease and may occur in most age groups, but is most prevalent among adults and seniors world-wide. Approximately 48% of United States adults have chronic periodontitis, and similar or higher rates have been reported in other populations. Moderate and advanced periodontitis is more prevalent among the older age groups, and rates of 70% or more have been reported in certain populations. Chronic and aggressive periodontitis are multifactorial diseases caused primarily by dental plaque microorganisms, and with important modifying effects from other local and systemic factors. The study of the significance of demographic, environmental, and biologic variables is important for risk assessment and the control of periodontal diseases.

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