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J Dairy Sci. 1992 May;75(5):1211-5.

Benzaldehyde, citral, and d-limonene flavor perception in the presence of casein and whey proteins.

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Department of Food Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27695-7624.


The effect of sodium caseinate and whey protein concentrate on benzaldehyde, d-limonene, and citral flavor intensity was determined by quantitative descriptive analysis deviation from reference using a 12-member trained panel. The concentrations for the benzaldehyde, d-limonene, and citral flavor intensity references were 17.8, 53.0, and 19.8 ppm, respectively. The concentration for both protein references was .25%. Flavored protein solutions were held for 17 h at 6 degrees C and contained benzaldehyde (17.8 ppm), d-limonene (53 ppm), or citral (19.8 ppm) and 2.5% sucrose with 0, .125, .25, or .5% protein. Benzaldehyde flavor intensity declined as the whey protein concentrate concentration increased from 0 to .5%. There was no significant difference in benzaldehyde flavor intensity with casein compared with the reference. The d-limonene flavor intensity declined as the protein concentration increased. Panelists found no significant drop in citral flavor intensity with casein or whey protein. Decreased benzaldehyde and d-limonene flavor intensity in the presence of whey protein concentrate or casein may be due to nonpolar interactions (casein), interaction with nonpolar binding sites, cysteine-aldehyde condensation, or Schiff base formation (whey protein concentrate).

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