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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2005 May-Jun;20(3):349-59.

Optimum surface properties of oxidized implants for reinforcement of osseointegration: surface chemistry, oxide thickness, porosity, roughness, and crystal structure.

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Department of Biomaterials/Handicap Research, Institute for Surgical Sciences, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.



To investigate detailed surface characterization of oxidized implants in a newly invented electrolyte system and to determine optimal surface oxide properties to enhance the bone response in rabbits.


A total of 100 screw-type titanium implants were prepared and divided into 1 control group (machine-turned implants) and 4 test groups (magnesium ion-incorporated oxidized implants). Forty implants were used for surface analyses. A total of 60 implants, 12 implants from each group, were placed in the tibiae of 10 New Zealand white rabbits and measured with a removal torque test after a healing period of 6 weeks.


For the test groups, the oxide thicknesses ranged from about 1,000 to 5,800 nm; for the control group, mean oxide thickness was about 17 nm. The surface morphology showed porous structures for test groups and nonporous barrier film for the control group. Pore diameter ranged from < or = 0.5 microm to < or = 3.0 microm. In regard to surface roughness, arithmetic average height deviation (Sa) values varied from 0.68 to 0.98 microm for test implants and 0.55 microm for control implants; developed surface ratio (Sdr) values ranged from 10.6% to 46% for the test groups and were about 10.6% for the control group. A mixture of anatase and rutile-type crystals were observed in the test groups; amorphous-type crystals were observed in the control group. After a healing period of 6 weeks, removal torque measurements in all 4 test groups demonstrated significantly greater implant integration as compared to machine-turned control implants (P < or = .033).


Determinant oxide properties of oxidized implants are discussed in association with bone responses. Of all surface properties, RTVs were linearly increased as relative atomic concentrations of magnesium ion increase.


Surface properties of the oxidized implants in the present study, especially surface chemistry, influenced bone responses. The surface chemistry of the optimal oxidized implant should be composed of approximately 9% magnesium at relative atomic concentration in titanium oxide matrix and have an oxide thickness of approximately 1,000 to 5,000 nm, a porosity of about 24%, and a surface roughness of about 0.8 microm in Sa and 27% to 46% in Sdr; its oxide crystal structure should be a mixture of anatase- and rutile-phase crystals.

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