Send to

Choose Destination
Nutr Rev. 2005 May;63(5):158-65.

Formation and human risk of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines formed from natural precursors in meat.

Author information

Biosciences Directorate, University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550, USA.


A group of heterocyclic amines that are mutagens and rodent carcinogens form when meat is cooked to medium and well-done states. The precursors of these compounds are natural meat components: creatinine, amino acids, and sugars. Defined model systems of dry-heated precursors mimic the amounts and proportions of heterocyclic amines found in meat. Results from model systems and cooking experiments suggest ways to reduce their formation and, thus, reduce human intake. Human cancer epidemiology studies related to the consumption of well-done meat products are listed and compared in this review.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
Loading ...
Support Center