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Addict Behav. 2006 Feb;31(2):359-66. Epub 2005 Jun 20.

Replication of subtypes for smoking cessation within the Preparation stage of change.

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Cancer Prevention Research Center, University of Rhode Island, Kingston 02881-0808, USA.



Recent cluster analyses based on the Pros and Cons and the Situational Temptations measures performed within the stages of change defined by the Transtheoretical Model have suggested the existence of distinct cluster subtypes. The goal of this study is to replicate cluster subtypes within the Preparation stage of change in a secondary analysis of data from a sample of current smokers (N=3967). Identification of stable cluster subtypes would permit the development of tailored interventions focusing on these subtypes.


Two random samples of approximately 340 subjects were selected from the 686 participants in the Preparation stage. The cluster analyses were performed using the Pros, Cons and Situational Temptations. Interpretability of the pattern, pseudo F test, and dendograms were used to determine the number of clusters.


Four distinct cluster subtypes (Classic, Progressing, Early Preparation, and Disengaged) were found and replicated across samples. The clusters were externally validated using the ten processes of change and two smoking behavior variables. Statistically significant (p<0.05) multivariate effects were found for the ten processes of change and the smoking behavior variables (p<0.001) in the two samples.


The cluster patterns replicate earlier findings and provide evidence for the existence of clusters subtypes within the Preparation stage of change.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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