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Bioresour Technol. 2006 Jan;97(1):21-5.

Oryza sativa L. husk as heavy metal adsorbent: optimization with lead as model solution.

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  • 1School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.


The effects of initial concentration of lead, temperature, biomass loading and pH were investigated for an optimized condition of lead uptake from the aqueous solution. The optimization process was analyzed using Central Composite Face-Centered Experimental Design in Response Surface Methodology (RSM) by Design Expert Version 5.0.7 (StatEase, USA). The design was employed to derive a statistical model for the effect of parameters studied on the removal of lead ion from aqueous solution. The coefficient of determination, R2 was found to be 92.36%. The initial concentration of 50.0 mg/L, temperature of 60 degrees C, biomass loading of 0.2 g and pH of 5.0 had been found to be the optimum conditions for the maximum uptake of lead ions in 98.11% batch mode. Under the optimum conditions, the lead uptake was attained to be circa 8.60 mg/g.

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