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Kidney Int. 2005 Jul;68(1):271-7.

Cardiovascular calcification in Hispanic Americans (HA) with chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to type 2 diabetes.

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Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78229-3900, USA.



Cardiovascular calcification (CVC) is common and severe in patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis. However, the prevalence and severity of CVC is less well documented in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not yet on dialysis.


Fifty-eight nondialyzed HA with type 2 diabetes and CKD were enrolled. They comprise 29 patients with stages 1 and 2 CKD (early CKD group) and 26 patients with stages 4 and 5 CKD (advanced CKD group). Coronary artery calcification (CAC) was measured by ultrafast spiral computed tomography, while peripheral artery calcification (PAC) was evaluated by plain x-ray of the chest, pelvis, thighs, and lower extremities.


The prevalence of CAC and PAC were significantly higher in the advanced CKD group compared to the early CKD group (73% vs. 38%; P < 0.01 and 85% vs. 35%; P < 0.0001, respectively). The median CAC scores were 18-fold greater in the advanced CKD group (138.9 vs. 7.8, respectively). By linear regression analysis, a strong association was found between the level of renal function and ln total volume of CAC.


Our data indicate that CAC and PAC are common and severe in HA diabetic patients with CKD not previously treated with dialysis, calcium-based phosphate binders, or vitamin D analogues. Lower level of renal function is associated with increased burden of vascular calcification in predialysis patients with CKD.

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