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Mol Neurobiol. 2005;31(1-3):149-67.

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase: the nuclear target in signal transduction and its role in brain ischemia-reperfusion injury.

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Department of Neurophysiology, Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.


Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 is a DNA nick sensor that transforms ADP-ribose from betaNAD+ in the form of polymer to over 40 nuclear proteins, particularly to histones, several transcription factors, and PARP itself, modulating their activities and functions. PARP-1 activated by DNA breaks facilitates transcription, replication, and DNA base excision repair. The last studies indicate that PARP-1 is the new nuclear target for fast signals evoked in cell membranes by depolarization and cholinergic and glutaminergic receptors stimulation. Excessive activation of PARP-1 by peroxynitrate-evoked DNA damage during oxidative stress can cause cell death by NAD+/ATP depletion after ischemia-reperfusion injury, inflammation, and diabetes mellitus. The PARP-1 through interaction with nuclear factor-kappaB, p53, and other transcription factors might significantly modulate cell survival and death and a type of death pathway. The pharmacological modulation of PARP-1 might offer a new effective approach for neuroprotection.

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