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Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2005 Sep;36(3):468-83.

Phylogenetic relationships of the New World Troidini swallowtails (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) based on COI, COII, and EF-1alpha genes.

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Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6109, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, SP, Brazil.


A phylogeny of the Neotropical members of the Tribe Troidini (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) was obtained with sequences of three protein-coding genes: two mitochondrial (COI and COII), and one nuclear (EF-1alpha). Parsimony and Bayesian analyses of 33 taxa resulted in very similar trees regardless of method used with the 27 troidines always forming a monophyletic clade. Within Troidini, the genus Battus is sister group to the remaining troidines, followed by a clade formed by the Paleotropical taxa (here represented by three exemplars). The genus Euryades is the next branch, and sister group of Parides. The genus Parides is monophyletic, and is divided into four main groups by Maximum Parsimony analysis, with the most basal group composed of tailed species restricted to SE Brazil. Character optimization of ecological and morphological traits over the phylogeny proposed for troidines indicated that the use of several species of Aristolochia is ancestral over the use of few or a single host-plant. For the other three characters, the ancestral states were the absence of long tails, forest as the primary habitat and oviposition solitary or in loose group of several eggs.

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