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Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2005 Jul;112(1):40-6.

Patterns of premorbid functioning in first episode psychosis: relationship to 2-year outcome.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, ON, Canada.



To determine how different patterns of premorbid functioning relate to outcome longitudinally.


Premorbid adjustment was assessed in 194 first-episode of psychosis subjects. Positive and negative symptoms, depression, substance misuse and social and cognitive functioning were assessed over 2 years.


Four patterns of premorbid adjustment: stable-good, stable-intermediate, poor-deteriorating and deteriorating were identified. Relative to the stable-good group, the deteriorating and poor-deteriorating groups had significantly more positive symptoms at 1-year follow-up but not at 2-year follow-up and significantly more negative symptoms and significantly poorer social functioning at both 1 and 2-years. Only verbal fluency and memory differentiated between the groups with the stable-good group having a superior performance.


Those who demonstrated poor or deteriorating functioning prior to the onset of acute psychosis have a poorer outcome up to at least 2 years in terms of negative symptoms and social functioning.

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