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Trends Biochem Sci. 2005 Jun;30(6):342-53.

Formin proteins: a domain-based approach.

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1
Department of Biochemistry, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover NH 03755, USA. henry.higgs@dartmouth.edu

Abstract

Formin proteins are potent regulators of actin dynamics. Most eukaryotes have multiple formin isoforms, suggesting diverse cellular roles. Formins are modular proteins, containing a series of domains and functional motifs. The Formin homology 2 (FH2) domain binds actin filament barbed ends and moves processively as these barbed ends elongate or depolymerize. The FH1 domain influences FH2 domain function through binding to the actin monomer-binding protein, profilin. Outside of FH1 and FH2, amino acid similarity between formins decreases, suggesting diverse mechanisms for regulation and cellular localization. Some formins are regulated by auto-inhibition through interaction between the diaphanous inhibitory domain (DID) and diaphanous auto-regulatory domain (DAD), and activated by Rho GTPase binding to GTPase-binding domains (GBD). Other formins lack DAD, DID and GBD, and their regulatory mechanisms await elucidation.

PMID:
15950879
DOI:
10.1016/j.tibs.2005.04.014
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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