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Curr Opin Immunol. 2005 Aug;17(4):338-44.

Pathogen recognition with Toll-like receptors.

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Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology (ERATO), Japan Science and Technology Agency, 3-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.


The innate immune system is an evolutionarily conserved system of defense against microbial infections. The family of Toll-like receptors is a major class of receptors that sense molecular patterns associated with a broad range of pathogens including bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. Following pathogen recognition, Toll-like receptors initiate intracellular signal transduction that results in the expression of genes involved in inflammation, antiviral responses and maturation of dendritic cells. Individual Toll-like receptors activate common and unique transcription factors through different signaling pathways to drive specific biological responses against microorganisms.

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