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Curr Opin Immunol. 2005 Aug;17(4):411-8.

Vaccinology at the beginning of the 21st century.

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Chiron Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy.


Today, the main challenges for vaccinologists include improving vaccines against as yet undefeated pathogens, rapid identification and response to emerging diseases and successful intervention in chronic diseases in which ongoing immune responses are insufficient. Reverse genetics and reverse vaccinology are now used to generate rapidly new vaccine strains and to mine whole genomes in the search for promising antigens. The rational design of adjuvants has become possible as a result of the discovery of the receptors that recognize microbial patterns and lead to dendritic cell activation. Antigen-loaded dendritic cells, DNA in naked, formulated or viral form, and other delivery systems are used to maximize immune responses. Although work on the 'easy' vaccines has already been completed, it is hoped that a combination of conceptual and technical innovation will enable the development of more complex and sophisticated vaccines in the future.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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