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Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005 Jun 10;1740(3):499-513. Epub 2004 Dec 8.

Progressive left ventricular remodeling, myocyte apoptosis, and protein signaling cascades after myocardial infarction in rabbits.

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Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, NY 14642, USA.


To determine the temporal changes in oxidative stress, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and mitochondrial apoptotic proteins, and their relationship to myocyte apoptosis in the remote noninfarcted myocardium after myocardial infarction (MI), rabbits were randomly assigned to either coronary artery ligation to produce MI or sham operation. The animals were sacrificed at 1, 4, 8, or 12 weeks after coronary artery occlusion. Sham rabbits were sacrificed at 12 weeks after surgery. MI rabbits exhibited progressive increases of left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure and end-diastolic dimension, and progressive decreases of LV fractional shortening and dP/dt over 12 weeks. The LV remodeling with LV chamber dilation and LV systolic dysfunction was temporally associated with progressive increases of cardiac oxidative stress as evidenced by decreased myocardial reduced-to-oxidized-glutathione ratio and increased myocardial 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and myocyte apoptosis. The ERK and JNK activities were decreased while p38 MAP kinase activity was increased with age of MI. The extent of p38 MAP kinase activation correlated with Bcl-2 phosphorylation. Bcl-2 protein was decreased in both mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions with age of MI. Bax protein was increased in both mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions. Cytochrome c was reduced in mitochondrial fraction and increased in cytosolic fraction in a time-dependent manner after MI. Cleaved caspase 9 and caspase 3 proteins were time-dependently increased after MI. These data suggest that p38 MAP kinase activation is not only time-dependent after MI, but also correlates with oxidative stress, Bcl-2 phosphorylation, and myocyte apoptosis. These changes in the remote noninfarcted myocardium may contribute to LV remodeling and dysfunction after MI.

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