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J Urol. 2005 Jul;174(1):370-4.

Function of the lower urinary tract in mice lacking alpha1d-adrenoceptor.

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Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan.



alpha1-Adrenoceptor (AR) blockers are known to relieve not only voiding symptoms, but also storage symptoms in elderly men. We investigated lower urinary tract function in mice lacking alpha1d-AR using frequency/volume analysis and filling cystometry.


A total of 10, 12-week-old female alpha1d-knockout (KO) mice and 10 age matched female wild-type (WT) mice were studied. Each mouse was placed in a metabolic cage connected to a digital scale and personal computer. Under a 12/12-hour dark/light photocycle voiding frequency and volume were recorded for 48 hours. After frequency/volume analysis filling cystometry was performed with the mice awake and without restraint. The expression of alpha1-AR subtype mRNA in the bladder of mice in each group was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction.


Mean daily voiding frequency +/- SD in alpha1d-KO mice was 9.0 +/- 2.1, significantly lower than 15.9 +/- 5.2 in WT mice (p = 0.0048). Mean volume per void in alpha1d-KO mice was significantly larger than in WT mice (0.24 +/- 0.02 vs 0.16 +/- 0.03 ml, p = 0.0096). Similarly cystometric analysis demonstrated larger bladder capacity (140%, p = 0.0008) and voided volume (146%, p = 0.0048) in alpha1d-KO mice compared with those in WT mice. No significant difference in maximum pressure at void was observed between the 2 groups. In WT mice the amount of alpha1a, alpha1b and alpha1d-AR subtype mRNA in the bladder was 5.2 +/- 0.7, 1.0 +/- 0.1 and 6.3 +/- 0.7 gene copies per ng total RNA, respectively. In contrast, alpha1d-AR transcript was not detectable in alpha1d-KO mice but alpha1a and alpha1b-AR expression was similar to that in WT mice.


The results demonstrate that the alpha1d-AR subtype has an important role in regulating bladder function. They theoretically support a clinical finding that alpha1-blockers with significant affinity for alpha1d-AR are effective for treating storage symptoms associated with benign prostatic obstruction.

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