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Biosens Bioelectron. 2006 Jan 15;21(7):1195-201. Epub 2005 Jun 8.

Detection of bacterial toxins with monosaccharide arrays.

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Center of Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA.


A large number of bacterial toxins, viruses and bacteria target carbohydrate derivatives on the cell surface to attach and gain entry into the cell. We report here the use of a monosaccharide-based array to detect protein toxins. The array-based technique provides the capability to perform simultaneous multianalyte analyses. Arrays of N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc) and N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) derivatives were immobilized on the surface of a planar waveguide and were used as receptors for protein toxins. These arrays were probed with fluorescently labeled bacterial cells and protein toxins. While Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) did not bind to either of the monosaccharides, both cholera toxin and tetanus toxin bound to GalNAc and Neu5Ac. The results show that the binding of the toxins to the carbohydrates is density dependent and semi-selective. Both toxins were detectable at 100 ng/ml.

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