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J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Jun;105(6):971-4.

Adolescent girls in Maine are at risk for vitamin D insufficiency.

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Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Maine, Orono 04469, USA.


The objective was to determine the seasonal fluctuations in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) in a group of healthy adolescents living in a northern climate. Twenty-three 9- to 11-year-old girls participated in the study from September 2000 to March 2003. Serum 25-OHD and parathyroid hormone levels were measured each September and March. Dietary intake of vitamin D was assessed each summer and winter. Summer-sun exposure was evaluated using reports of time spent outdoors. The mean decrease in serum 25-OHD from September to March was 28%. Vitamin D insufficiency (at least one serum 25-OHD level <50 nmol/L) was observed in 11 of 23 (48%) subjects. Four of 23 subjects (17%) exhibited vitamin D insufficiency in both September and March. Mean parathyroid hormone levels increased 4 pg/mL (15%) from September to March. Vitamin D intakes need to be increased in winter at northern latitudes.

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