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Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2005 Jun;12(3):203-8.

Prevalence and predictors of smoking in Pakistan: results of the National Health Survey of Pakistan.

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1
Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

We analysed data collected during a nationwide cross-sectional household survey to estimate the prevalence of and identify factors associated with smoking in Pakistan.

DESIGN:

Population-based, cross-sectional survey [National Health Survey of Pakistan (NHSP) 1990-1994].

METHODS:

A population-based survey was carried out in Pakistan during 1990-1994. A nationally representative sample of 18,135 individuals aged 6 months and older was surveyed. We restricted this analysis to individuals aged 15 years or older (n=9442). The main outcome measure was self-reported smoking. Smokers were defined as individuals who reported current smoking and having smoked at least 100 cigarettes or 'beddies' during their lifetime.

RESULTS:

Overall prevalence of smoking was 15.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 14.5-15.9%]. It was 28.6% (27.3-29.9%) among men and 3.4% (2.9-3.9%) among women. The highest prevalence was reported in men aged 40-49 years (40.9%). The independent predictors of smoking identified in the multivariate logistic regression analysis included age, male gender, ethnicity and illiteracy.

CONCLUSIONS:

One out of every two to three middle-aged men in Pakistan smoke cigarettes. Our findings suggest that ethnically sensitive smoking control programmes that include measures for improving literacy rates are needed in Pakistan.

PMID:
15942416
DOI:
10.1097/S1741-82670312303-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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