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Forensic Sci Int. 2005 Aug 11;152(1):73-7.

The prevalence of MDMA/MDA in both hair and urine in drug users.

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Department of Narcotics Analysis, National Institute of Scientific Investigation, 331-1 Shinwol 7-Dong, Yang-Chun Gu, Seoul, South Korea.


The prevalence and age distribution of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) in hair samples by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were studied. The recoveries obtained from hair were 97% and 99% for MDMA and MDA, respectively. The inter- and intra-assay precision and accuracy were determined. Out of 791 hair samples, 44 (5.6 %) contained MDMA and/or MDA. Out of these 44 subjects, urinalyses from 35 were negative for both MDMA and MDA, while only 9 were positive. We also evaluated concentrations of MDMA and MDA, and the metabolite-to-parent drug ratios. This study showed that the abuse of MDMA or MDA was found principally among young adults and male abusers. We found the epidemiology of ecstasy users in Korea between March 2002 and April 2003.

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