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Environ Monit Assess. 2005 May;104(1-3):409-18.

Ecological risk assessment of abandoned shrimp ponds in southern Thailand.

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Faculty of Environmental Management, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand.


The potential ecological risks associated with contaminants from 15 abandoned shrimp ponds in southern Thailand were assessed at the screening level. Shrimp ponds reported as out of production for more than 2 years were selected as sampling sites. The assessment endpoint was identified as the protection of aquatic life from hazard of multiple agents or stressors in water or sediment from the ponds. The measurement endpoints were amount of toxic phytoplankton species, Yellow Head Viruses, SEMB viruses, oxytetracycline, cadmium, copper, and manganese. Data from field measurements and laboratory analyses obtained primarily from April to June 2003 were used in the risk analysis. The results showed that insignificant amounts of stressors were present, except for the metals. So, only concentration values of the metals were used in the calculation of hazard quotients (HQ) for risk characterization. The highest potential ecological risk characterized by the highest HQ value observed for each metal was 19 for manganese, 4.3 for cadmium, and 1.8 for copper. These findings indicated a need for further ecological risk assessment at a more detailed level to focus on the bioavailability and effects of metals from abandoned shrimp farms, with manganese the highest priority.

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