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Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Jun 1;11(11):4160-7.

Clinical evaluation of dendritic cell vaccination for patients with recurrent glioma: results of a clinical phase I/II trial.

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Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University School of Medicine, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan.



To investigate the safety and the immunologic and clinical responses of dendritic cell therapy for patients with recurrent malignant glioma.


Twenty-four patients with recurrent malignant glioma (6 grade 3 and 18 grade 4 patients) were evaluated in a phase I/II clinical study of dendritic cell therapy. All patients were resistant to the standard maximum therapy. The patient's peripheral blood dendritic cells were generated with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, plus interleukin 4 with or without OK-432, and pulsed with an autologous tumor lysate. Dendritic cells were injected intradermally, or both intratumorally and intradermally every 3 weeks.


The protocols were well tolerated with only local redness and swelling at the injection site in several cases. Clinical responses were as follows: 1 patient with partial response, 3 patients with minor response, 10 patients with stable disease, and 10 patients with progressive disease. The patients whose dendritic cells were matured with OK-432 had longer survival times than the dendritic cells from patients without OK-432 maturation. The patients with both intratumoral and intradermal administrations had a longer survival time than the patients with intradermal administration only. Increased ELISPOT and delayed-type hypersensitivity responses after vaccination could provide good laboratory markers to predict the clinical outcome of patients receiving dendritic cell vaccination. The overall survival of patients with grade 4 glioma was 480 days, which was significantly better than that in the control group.


This study showed the safety and clinical response of autologous tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell therapy for patients with malignant glioma. Dendritic cell therapy is recommended for further clinical studies in malignant glioma patients.

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