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Nat Rev Immunol. 2005 Jun;5(6):446-58.

Negative regulation of toll-like receptor-mediated immune responses.

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  • 1Division of Immunology, Infection and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G11 6NT, UK.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in host defence against invading pathogens, functioning as primary sensors of microbial products and activating signalling pathways that induce the expression of immune and pro-inflammatory genes. However, TLRs have also been implicated in several immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases. As the immune system needs to constantly strike a balance between activation and inhibition to avoid detrimental and inappropriate inflammatory responses, TLR signalling must be tightly regulated. Here, we discuss the various negative regulatory mechanisms that have evolved to attenuate TLR signalling to maintain this immunological balance.

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