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J Hum Genet. 2005;50(6):293-300. Epub 2005 May 28.

Paraoxonase 1 status in the Thai population.

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Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Sri Ayudhaya Road, 10400, Bangkok, Thailand.


Human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1), a high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated enzyme, has been shown to reduce the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL by degrading lipid peroxides. This property of PON1 accounts for its ability to protect against atherosclerosis. In this study, we identified four polymorphisms in both the coding (L55M and Q192R) and regulatory regions (T-108C and G-909C) of the human PON1 gene in 202 healthy Thai individuals and investigated the influence of these polymorphisms on serum PON1 activity towards three substrates, namely, paraoxon, phenylacetate and diazoxon. The PON1 L55M, Q192R and G-909C polymorphisms significantly affected the variation in serum PON1 activity towards paraoxon. Serum PON1 activity towards paraoxon was significantly different among the genotype groups, as follows: 55LL > 55LM/55MM, 192RR > 192QR > 192QQ and -909CC > -909CG > -909GG. The PON1 Q192R and G-909C polymorphisms also influenced the variation in serum PON1 activity towards diazoxon but in the opposite direction to the activity towards paraoxon. Only the PON1 L55M polymorphism was associated with significant variation in serum PON1 activity towards phenylacetate while the PON1 T-108C polymorphism had no significant effect on serum PON1 activity towards any substrate. We also found linkage disequilibrium among the polymorphic sites, including Q192R versus L55M, Q192R versus T-108C and Q192R versus G-909C. Serum PON1 activity towards both paraoxon and phenylacetate, but not diazoxon, was positively correlated with HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and apo AI concentrations. None of the PON1 polymorphisms significantly affected serum lipid, lipoprotein or apolipoprotein concentrations. Our findings suggest that the physiological relevance of the PON1 polymorphisms is that they are associated with significant differences in serum PON1 activity, and the impact of PON1 polymorphisms on this activity is substrate-dependent.

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