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Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2005 Jul;61(3):398-403.

Effects of the herbicides clomazone, quinclorac, and metsulfuron methyl on acetylcholinesterase activity in the silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) (Heptapteridae).

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Departamento de QuĂ­mica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105.900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.


Fingerlings of the silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) were exposed to three herbicides widely used in rice culture in south Brazil: clomazone, quinclorac, and metsulfuron methyl. LC50 was determined and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was evaluated in brain and muscle tissue of fish exposed to different herbicide concentrations after 96h (short term). The LC50 value (nominal concentration) was 7.32 mg/L for clomazone and 395 mg/L for quinclorac, but was not obtained for metsulfuron-methyl since all fingerlings survived the highest concentration of 1200 mg/L. Brain and muscle AChE activity in unexposed fish were 17.9 and 9.08 micromol/min/g protein, respectively. Clomazone significantly inhibited AChE activity in both tissues, achieving maximal inhibition of about 83% in brain and 89% in muscle tissue. In contrast, quinclorac and metsulfuron methyl caused increases in enzyme activity in the brain (98 and 179%, respectively) and inhibitions in muscle tissue (88 and 56%, respectively). This study demonstrated short-term effects of exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of rice field herbicides on AChE activity in brain and muscle tissue of silver catfish.

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