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Virology. 2005 Jul 20;338(1):9-21.

Targeting Sindbis virus-based vectors to Fc receptor-positive cell types.

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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130, USA.


Some viruses display enhanced infection for Fc receptor (FcR)-positive cell types when complexed with virus-specific immunoglobulin (Ig). This process has been termed antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection (ADE). We reasoned that the mechanism of ADE could be exploited and adapted to target alphavirus-based vectors to FcR-positive cell types. Towards this goal, recombinant Sindbis viruses were constructed that express 1 to 4 immunoglobulin-binding domains of protein L (PpL) as N-terminal extensions of the E2 glycoprotein. PpL is a bacterial protein that binds the variable region of antibody kappa light chains from a range of mammalian species. The recombinant viruses incorporated PpL/E2 fusion proteins into the virion structure and recapitulated the species-specific Ig-binding phenotypes of native PpL. Virions reacted with non-immune serum or purified IgG displayed enhanced binding and ADE for several species-matched FcR-positive murine and human cell lines. ADE required virus expression of a functional PpL Ig-binding domain, and appeared to be FcgammaR-mediated. Specifically, ADE did not occur with FcgammaR-negative cells, did not require active complement proteins, and did not occur on FcgammaR-positive murine cell lines when virions were bound by murine IgG-derived F(ab')2 fragments.

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