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Am J Pathol. 2005 Jun;166(6):1711-20.

Sustained osteomalacia of long bones despite major improvement in other hypophosphatasia-related mineral deficits in tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase/nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1 double-deficient mice.

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Dept. of Pathology and Lab Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160, USA.


We have shown previously that the hypomineralization defects of the calvarium and vertebrae of tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP)-deficient (Akp2-/-) hypophosphatasia mice are rescued by simultaneous deletion of the Enpp1 gene, which encodes nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1). Conversely, the hyperossification in the vertebral apophyses typical of Enpp1-/- mice is corrected in [Akp2-/-; Enpp1-/-] double-knockout mice. Here we have examined the appendicular skeletons of Akp2-/-, Enpp1-/-, and [Akp2-/-; Enpp1-/-] mice to ascertain the degree of rescue afforded at these skeletal sites. Alizarin red and Alcian blue whole mount analysis of the skeletons from wild-type, Akp2-/-, and [Akp2-/-; Enpp1-/-] mice revealed that although calvarium and vertebrae of double-knockout mice were normalized with respect to mineral deposition, the femur and tibia were not. Using several different methodologies, we found reduced mineralization not only in Akp2-/- but also in Enpp1-/- and [Akp2-/-; Enpp1-/-] femurs and tibias. Analysis of calvarial- and bone marrow-derived osteoblasts for mineralized nodule formation in vitro showed increased mineral deposition by Enpp1-/- calvarial osteoblasts but decreased mineral deposition by Enpp1-/- long bone marrow-derived osteoblasts in comparison to wild-type cells. Thus, the osteomalacia of Akp2-/- mice and the hypomineralized phenotype of the long bones of Enpp1-/- mice are not rescued by simultaneous deletion of TNAP and NPP1 functions.

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