Send to

Choose Destination
J Clin Virol. 2006 Jan;35(1):33-40.

Longitudinal observation of enterovirus and adenovirus in stool samples from Norwegian infants with the highest genetic risk of type 1 diabetes.

Author information

Motol University Hospital, Charles University Prague, V Uvalu 85, CZ-150 06 Praha 5, The Czech Republic.



Enterovirus and adenovirus are common in infancy, causing mostly asymptomatic infections. However, even an asymptomatic infection may be associated with increased risk of development of certain chronic non-infectious diseases, as has been suggested for enterovirus and type 1 diabetes. Data on occurrence and course of the infections in infancy are therefore important for designing effective approaches towards study of the association.


To estimate the frequency of enterovirus and adenovirus infections in Norwegian infants, to evaluate the duration of the infections, to investigate their association with symptoms, and to establish a robust procedure that will be used to study the association between these viruses and the development of auto-immunity leading to type 1 diabetes.


Parents of infants, recruited for a study on environmental triggers of type 1 diabetes, submitted monthly samples of infant faeces, as well as information on symptoms of infection. The samples were analysed for enterovirus and adenovirus using quantitative real-time PCR, and enterovirus-positive samples were sequenced.


Enteroviruses were found in 142/1,255 (11.3%), and adenoviruses in 138/1,255 (11.0%) of stool samples. Approximately half of the infants were exposed to these viruses at least once during the first year of observation (period 3-14 months of age). The presence of adenovirus was associated with fever and with symptoms of cold but not with diarrhoea and vomiting. The enterovirus positivity was not associated with any symptoms.


The prevalence of enterovirus and adenovirus in longitudinally obtained faecal samples from infants is sufficiently high to enable studies of their association with chronic diseases. The present protocol for evaluating exposure to these viruses is well suited for large-scale efforts aimed at assessing possible long-term consequences, particularly in relation to type 1 diabetes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center