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Br J Haematol. 2005 Jun;129(5):631-43.

Comparison between antithymocyte globulin and alemtuzumab and the possible impact of KIR-ligand mismatch after dose-reduced conditioning and unrelated stem cell transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma.

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1
Bone Marrow Transplantation, University Hospital Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany. nkroeger@uke.uni-hamburg.de

Abstract

We compared antithymocyte globulin (ATG) with alemtuzumab in 73 patients with multiple myeloma, who underwent reduced conditioning with melphalan/fludarabine, followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation from human leucocyte antigen-matched or -mismatched unrelated donors. The ATG group had more prior high-dose chemotherapies (P < 0.001), while bone marrow was used more as the stem cell source in the alemtuzumab group (P < 0.001). Alemtuzumab resulted in faster engraftment of leucocytes (P = 0.03) and platelets (P = 0.02) and in a lower incidence of acute graft versus host disease (GvHD) grades II-IV (24% vs. 47%, P = 0.06). More cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositive patients in the alemtuzumab group experienced CMV reactivation (100% vs. 47%, P = 0.001). The cumulative incidence of treatment-related mortality at 2 years was 26% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 12-37%] for ATG vs. 28% (95% CI = 15-55%) for alemtuzumab, P = 0.7. There was no significant difference in the estimated 2-year overall and progression-free survival between ATG and alemtuzumab: 54% (95% CI: 39-75%) vs. 45% (95% CI: 28-73%) and 30% (95% CI: 16-55%) vs. 36% (95% CI: 20-62%) respectively. In multivariate analysis, treatment with alemtuzumab had a higher risk for relapse (hazard ratio: 2.37; P = 0.05) while killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)-ligand mismatch was protective for relapse (P < 0.0001). We conclude that alemtuzumab produced less acute GvHD, but higher probability of relapse. The data implicated a major role of KIR-ligand mismatched transplantation in multiple myeloma.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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