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J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2005 May;14(4):316-23.

Menstrual-related problems and psychological distress among women in the United States.

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Division of Adult and Community Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA.



To examine the associations of menstrual-related problems with mental health and health behaviors in a U.S. population-based study.


We analyzed data obtained from women aged 18-55 years (n = 11,648) who participated in the 2002 National Health Interview Survey, an ongoing, computer-assisted personal interview of the noninstitutionalized U.S. population.


Approximately 19% of women aged 18-55 years reported experiencing menstrual-related problems (e.g., heavy bleeding, bothersome cramping, or premenstrual syndrome [PMS]). These women were significantly more likely than those without menstrual-related problems to report frequent anxiety and depression, insomnia, excessive sleepiness, and pain over the past 12 months. Women with menstrual-related problems were also significantly more likely to report feeling sad, nervous, restless, hopeless, or worthless and that everything was an effort all or most of the time during the past 30 days. Cigarette smoking, drinking heavily, and being overweight or obese were also more frequently reported among women with menstrual-related problems than those without.


Menstrual-related problems pose substantial implications for public health. Healthcare providers should examine mental health concerns in women reporting menstrual-related problems.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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