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Pharmacol Res. 2005 Jul;52(1):44-59.

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-mediated cell injury in acute renal failure.

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Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA.


Acute Renal Failure (ARF) is the most costly kidney disease in hospitalized patients and remains as a serious problem in clinical medicine. The mortality rate among ARF patients remains around 50% and no pharmaceutical agents are currently available to improve its clinical outcome. Although several successful therapeutic approaches have been developed in animal models of the disease, translation of the results to clinical ARF remains elusive. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of vascular and tubular dysfunction in ARF is important for developing acceptable therapeutic interventions. Following an ischemic episode, cells of the affected nephron undergo necrotic and/or apoptotic cell death. Necrotic cell death is widely considered to be a futile process that cannot be modulated by pharmacological means as opposed to apoptosis. However, recent reports from various laboratories including ours indicate that inhibition or absence of poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP), one of the molecules involved in cell death, provides remarkable protection in disease models such as stroke, myocardial infarction and renal ischemia which are characterized predominantly by necrotic type of cell death. Overactivation of PARP in conditions such as ischemic renal injury leads to cellular depletion of its substrate NAD+ and consequently ATP. The severely compromised cellular energetic state induces acute cell injury and diminishes renal functions. PARP activation also enhances the expression of proinflammatory agents and adhesion molecules in ischemic kidneys. Pharmacological inhibition and gene ablation of PARP-1 decreased energy depletion, inflammatory response and improved renal functions in the setting renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. The biochemical pathways and the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediated by PARP-1 activation in eliciting the energy depletion and inflammatory responses in ischemic kidney are not fully elucidated. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms by which PARP activation contributes to oxidant-induced cell death will provide new strategies to interfere in those pathways to modulate cell death in renal ischemia. The current review evaluates the experimental evidences in animal and cell culture models implicating PARP as a pathophysiological modulator of acute renal failure with particular emphasis on ischemic renal injury.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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