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Lancet Neurol. 2005 Jun;4(6):362-5.

Intake of vitamin E, vitamin C, and carotenoids and the risk of Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis.

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Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Royal Victoria Hospital and McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. <>


We studied the effect of vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta carotene intake on the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies published between 1966 and March 2005 searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. Eight studies were identified (six case-control, one cohort, and one cross-sectional). We found that dietary intake of vitamin E protects against PD. This protective influence was seen with both moderate intake (relative risk 0.81, 95% CI 0.67-0.98) and high intake (0.78, 0.57-1.06) of vitamin E, although the possible benefit associated with high intake of vitamin E was not significant. The studies did not suggest any protective effects associated with vitamin C or beta carotene. We conclude that dietary vitamin E may have a neuroprotective effect attenuating the risk of PD. These results require confirmation in randomised controlled trials.

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