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Vascul Pharmacol. 2005 Apr-May;42(5-6):281-9.

Coordinated induction of iNOS-VEGF-KDR-eNOS after resveratrol consumption: a potential mechanism for resveratrol preconditioning of the heart.

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Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Connecticut, School of Medicine, Farmington, CT 06030-1110, United States.


Existing evidence indicates that resveratrol, a red wine and grape-derived polyphenolic antioxidant, can pharmacologically precondition the heart in a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent manner. To further explore the role of NO in resveratrol-mediated cardioprotection, the induction for the expression of the potential molecular targets of NO including VEGF and KDR as well as iNOS and eNOS were examined by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Two groups of rats were studied, one group of animals was fed resveratrol for 7 days while the other group was given water only. After 1, 3, 5 and 7 days, the rats were sacrificed and the expression of the proteins was examined by Western blot analysis. Western blot detected an overexpression of iNOS and VEGF within 24 h of resveratrol treatment while the induction of KDR was not increased until after 3 days and eNOS expression after 5 days of resveratrol treatment. These expressions were further increased after 7 days of resveratrol treatment, when the rats were sacrificed for the isolated working heart preparation. Resveratrol provided cardioprotection as evidenced by superior post-ischemic ventricular recovery, reduced myocardial infarct size and decreased number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes. Immunohistochemistry was performed in the hearts at baseline, and at the end of 30-min ischemia/2-h reperfusion. The hearts obtained from resveratrol-treated rats revealed enhanced expression for iNOS, eNOS and VEGF and KDR compared to control hearts at the end of reperfusion. The results of this study demonstrate that resveratrol leads to a coordinated upregulation of iNOS-VEGF-KDR-eNOS, which is likely to play a role in resveratrol-mediated cardioprotection.

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