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Phys Rev Lett. 2005 Mar 25;94(11):111601. Epub 2005 Mar 22.

Viscosity in strongly interacting quantum field theories from black hole physics.

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1
Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA.

Abstract

The ratio of shear viscosity to volume density of entropy can be used to characterize how close a given fluid is to being perfect. Using string theory methods, we show that this ratio is equal to a universal value of variant Planck's over 2pi/4pik(B) for a large class of strongly interacting quantum field theories whose dual description involves black holes in anti-de Sitter space. We provide evidence that this value may serve as a lower bound for a wide class of systems, thus suggesting that black hole horizons are dual to the most ideal fluids.

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