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Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2005 Mar;71(3 Pt 2B):037103. Epub 2005 Mar 28.

Spatial prisoner's dilemma game with volunteering in Newman-Watts small-world networks.

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  • 1Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou University, China.


A modified spatial prisoner's dilemma game with voluntary participation in Newman-Watts small-world networks is studied. Some reasonable ingredients are introduced to the game evolutionary dynamics: each agent in the network is a pure strategist and can only take one of three strategies (cooperator, defector, and loner); its strategical transformation is associated with both the number of strategical states and the magnitude of average profits, which are adopted and acquired by its coplayers in the previous round of play; a stochastic strategy mutation is applied when it gets into the trouble of local commons that the agent and its neighbors are in the same state and get the same average payoffs. In the case of very low temptation to defect, it is found that agents are willing to participate in the game in typical small-world region and intensive collective oscillations arise in more random region.

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