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Muscle Nerve. 2005 Sep;32(3):247-60.

Skeletal muscle involvement in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

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Hôpital Henri-Mondor, Département de Pathologie, Créteil F-94010, France.


Skeletal muscle involvement can occur at all stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and may represent the first manifestation of the disease. Myopathies in HIV-infected patients are classified as follows: (1) HIV-associated myopathies and related conditions, including HIV polymyositis, inclusion-body myositis, nemaline myopathy, diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome (DILS), HIV-wasting syndrome, vasculitic processes, myasthenic syndromes, and chronic fatigue; (2) muscle complications of antiretroviral therapy, including zidovudine and toxic mitochondrial myopathies related to other nucleoside-analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome, and immune restoration syndrome related to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); (3) opportunistic infections and tumor infiltrations of skeletal muscle; and (4) rhabdomyolysis. Introduction of HAART has dramatically modified the natural history of HIV disease by controlling viral replication, but, in turn, lengthening of the survival of HIV-infected individuals has been associated with an increasing prevalence of iatrogenic conditions.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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