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Differentiation. 2005 Apr;73(4):121-33.

Molecular, cellular and developmental biology of urothelium as a basis of bladder regeneration.

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Department of Urology, University Medical Center Charité, Humboldt University, Schumannstrasse 20/21, 10117 Berlin, Germany.


Urinary bladder malfunction and disorders are caused by congenital diseases, trauma, inflammation, radiation, and nerve injuries. Loss of normal bladder function results in urinary tract infection, incontinence, renal failure, and end-stage renal dysfunction. In severe cases, bladder augmentation is required using segments of the gastrointestinal tract. However, use of gastrointestinal mucosa can result in complications such as electrolyte imbalance, stone formation, urinary tract infection, mucous production, and malignancy. Recent tissue engineering techniques use acellular grafts, cultured cells combined with biodegradable scaffolds, and cell sheets. These techniques are not all currently applicable for human bladder reconstruction. However, new avenues for bladder reconstruction maybe facilitated by a better understanding of urogenital development, the cellular and molecular biology of urothelium, and cell-cell interactions, which modulate tissue repair, homeostasis, and disease progression.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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