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Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2005 Jun;32(2):165-79.

Labor with abnormal presentation and position.

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  • 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, 1 Medical Center Drive, PO Box 9186, Morgantown, WV 26506-9186, USA.


Abnormal presentation and position are encountered infrequently during labor. Breech and transverse presentations should be converted to cephalic presentations by external cephalic version or delivered by cesarean section. Face, brow, and compound presentations are usually managed expectantly. Persistent occiput transverse positions are managed by rotation to anterior positions and delivered as such. Occiput posterior positions can be delivered as such or rotated to occiput anterior positions. As with any position or presentation, an obstetrician should not hesitate to abandon any rotational or operative vaginal procedure and proceed to cesarean delivery if rotation or descent does not occur with relative ease.

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