Send to

Choose Destination
J Infect Dis. 2005 Jun 15;191(12):2038-45. Epub 2005 May 11.

Declining incidence of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections among persons with AIDS in an era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, 1995-2000.

Author information

Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.



Our goal was to describe trends in invasive pneumococcal disease incidence among persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).


We used time-trend analysis of annual invasive pneumococcal disease incidence rates from a population-based, active surveillance system. Annual incidence rates were calculated for 5 July-June periods by use of data from San Francisco county, the 6-county Baltimore metropolitan area, and Connecticut. The numerators were the numbers of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections among persons 18-64 years of age with AIDS; the denominators were the numbers of persons living with AIDS, estimated on the basis of AIDS surveillance data.


The annual incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease declined from 1094 cases/100,000 persons with AIDS (July 1995-June 1996) to 467 cases/100,000 persons living with AIDS (July 1999-June 2000). The annual percentage changes in incidence were -34%, -29%, -8%, and -1%. Declines were similar by surveillance area, sex, and race/ethnicity. During the final year of the study, the invasive pneumococcal disease incidence in persons with AIDS was half that of the pre-HAART era but was still 35 times higher than that in similarly aged non-HIV-infected adults.


In the United States, invasive pneumococcal disease incidence declined sharply across a range of subgroups living with AIDS during the period after widespread introduction of HAART. Despite these gains, persons with AIDS remain at high risk for invasive pneumococcal disease.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
Loading ...
Support Center