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Addict Behav. 2005 Jun;30(5):915-27.

Replication of subtypes for smoking cessation within the contemplation stage of change.

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Cancer Prevention Research Center, 2 Chafee Rd., University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881-0808, USA.



Tailored interventions based on stage of change and other Transtheoretical Model constructs have been effective for promoting smoking cessation. Recent cluster analyses based on the Pros and Cons from the Decisional Balance and the Situational Temptations measures performed within the stages have suggested the existence of distinct cluster subtypes. Cluster subtypes would permit the development of tailored interventions focusing on these subtypes. This study attempts to replicate cluster subtypes within the Contemplation stage of change in a secondary analysis of data from a sample of current smokers (N=3967).


Four random samples of 400 were selected from the 1734 Contemplators. The cluster analyses were performed using the Pros, Cons, and Situational Temptations. Interpretability of the pattern, pseudo-F-test, and dendograms were used to determine the number of clusters.


Four distinct cluster subtypes (Classic Contemplators, Progressing, Early Contemplators, and Disengaged) were found and replicated across samples. The clusters were externally validated using the 10 Processes of change and 2 smoking behavior variables (cigarettes per day and time before first morning cigarette). Statistically significant (p<0.05) multivariate effects were found for the 10 Processes of change in all four samples. The cluster groups differed on 7 or more of the processes in each sample. Significant multivariate effects were also found for the smoking behavior variables in all samples (p<0.001).


The cluster patterns closely replicate earlier findings and provide evidence for the existence of clusters subtypes within the Contemplation stage of change.

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