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Environ Toxicol. 2005 Jun;20(3):390-6.

Pressurized liquid extraction of toxins from cyanobacterial cells.

Author information

1
Chemistry Research Division, Health Canada, Tunney's Pasture, 0800C, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0L2, Canada. rocio_aranda-rodriguez@hc-sc.gc.ca

Abstract

The suitability of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of cyanotoxins from cells was investigated. The stability of cyanotoxins (MCYST-RR, MCYST-LR, and anatoxin-a) was evaluated at nine combinations of pressure and temperature (7, 10, and 14 MPa and 60 degrees C, 80 degrees C and 100 degrees C) using 75% (v/v) methanol in water (MeOH) as solvent. Additional experiments investigated the stability of cyanotoxins when water was used as solvent (at a pressure of 14 MPa and a temperature of 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C, 60 degrees C, 80 degrees C, or 100 degrees C). Results using 75% MeOH showed that the MCYST-RR and MCYST-LR were stable under the tested pressures up to 80 degrees C. At 100 degrees C MCYST recovery decreased by 10% to 17%. When water was used as the solvent, no differences in recovery were observed for MCYST-LR, whereas for MCYST-RR, maximum recovery was obtained at 60 degrees C, and degradation occurred at 100 degrees C. In contrast, anatoxin-a was labile under all experimental conditions; the best recoveries (ca. 50%) were obtained at 60 degrees C at the three pressures using 75% MeOH. However, only 17%-23% recovery was obtained with water extraction at all temperatures. The extraction of MCYST-LR and variants from cells (Microcystis aeruginosa, UTCC299) was studied using two solvents, 75% MeOH and 100% water, at 14 MPa and 60 degrees C and 100 degrees C. PLE extracts were compared with extracts obtained with 75% MeOH and ultrasonication. Complete extraction was achieved in both solvents in one 5-min cycle (at 100 degrees C). Although lower recovery was obtained using PLE (79%-105%), shorter extraction time and automation are advantageous over ultrasonication.

PMID:
15892041
DOI:
10.1002/tox.20116
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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