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J Agric Food Chem. 2005 May 18;53(10):4157-65.

The addition of Propionibacterium freudenreichii to Raclette cheese induces biochemical changes and enhances flavor development.

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UMR 1253 Science et Technologie du Lait et de l'Oeuf, INRA-Agrocampus, 65 rue de Saint-Brieuc, 35042 Rennes Cedex, France.


Two mixtures of Propionibacterium freudenreichii commercial strains were tested as adjunct cultures in pasteurized milk Raclette cheese to investigate the ability of propionibacteria (PAB) to enhance flavor development. Cheese flavor was assessed by a trained sensory panel, and levels of free amino acids, free fatty acids, and volatile compounds were determined. The PAB level showed a 1.4 log increase within the ripening period (12 weeks at 11 degrees C). Eye formation, which was not desired, was not observed in PAB cheeses. PAB fermented lactate to acetate and propionate and produced fatty acids by lipolysis, branched chain volatile compounds derived from isoleucine and leucine catabolism and some esters. One of the experimental cheeses received the highest scores for odor and flavor intensity and was characterized by higher frequencies of detection for some minor notes ("propionic"and "whey" odor, "sweet" taste). PAB can therefore be considered as potential adjunct cultures to enhance or modify cheese flavor development.

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