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Planta. 2005 Sep;222(1):37-46. Epub 2005 May 10.

Flower proteome: changes in protein spectrum during the advanced stages of rose petal development.

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The Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel.


Flowering is a unique and highly programmed process, but hardly anything is known about the developmentally regulated proteome changes in petals. Here, we employed proteomic technologies to study petal development in rose (Rosa hybrida). Using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, we generated stage-specific (closed bud, mature flower and flower at anthesis) petal protein maps with ca. 1,000 unique protein spots. Expression analyses of all resolved protein spots revealed that almost 30% of them were stage-specific, with ca. 90 protein spots for each stage. Most of the proteins exhibited differential expression during petal development, whereas only ca. 6% were constitutively expressed. Eighty-two of the resolved proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and annotated. Classification of the annotated proteins into functional groups revealed energy, cell rescue, unknown function (including novel sequences) and metabolism to be the largest classes, together comprising ca. 90% of all identified proteins. Interestingly, a large number of stress-related proteins were identified in developing petals. Analyses of the expression patterns of annotated proteins and their corresponding RNAs confirmed the importance of proteome characterization.

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