Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Urology. 2005 May;65(5):858-61.

High kidney stone risk in men working in steel industry at hot temperatures.

Author information

Urological Institute, Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.



To study the incidence of urinary lithiasis and metabolic alterations among male employees from a steel industry who were exposed to high temperatures in the work environment.


A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed and consisted of two stages. First, the incidence of urolithiasis among the industry's 10,326 employees was assessed. These employees were divided into two group's: group 1 (n = 1289) consisted of the hot-area workers (temperature greater than 45 degrees C) and group 2 (n = 9037) consisted of those working in areas at room temperature. In the second stage, 59 workers without urolithiasis who underwent a metabolic evaluation were divided into two group's: group 3 (n = 34) consisted of hot-area workers and group 4 (n = 25) consisted of those working in areas at room temperature. Evaluations were made of calcium, creatinine, and uric acid in serum; in the 24-hour urine samples, we assessed the volume, calcium, uric acid, citrate, and oxalate.


Of the 10,326 workers, 181 (1.75%) had presented with at least one episode of urinary stones. Of these, 103 were among the hot-area workers (8.0%) and 78 among the room-temperature workers (0.9%; P <0.001). The metabolic evaluation showed that the hot-area group (group 3), compared with the room-temperature group (group 4), presented more frequently with hypocitraturia (55.8% versus 28%, P = 0.03) and low urinary volume (79.4% versus 48%, P = 0.01).


Workers exposed to high temperatures presented with a ninefold risk of lithiasis. Hypocitraturia and low urine volumes were the metabolic alterations observed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center