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J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2005 May 15;304(3):250-8.

Four types of Smad4 found in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

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Fisheries College, Jimei University, Xiamen, Fujian 361021, China.


Smad4 is defined as the common-mediator Smad (Co-Smad) required for transducing signals for all transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily members. In this study, we have isolated eight distinct Smad4 full-length cDNAs from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). These cDNAs were classified into four types and each type consisted of two subtypes. The eight cDNAs encoded four distinct proteins ranging from 505aa to 568aa in size, with close similarities in the Mad homology 1 and 2 (MH1 and MH2, respectively), but with differences in the linker regions and the C-terminus as well as in the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions. Genomic Southern blotting demonstrated the existence of at least six Smad4 gene loci in the carp genome, meaning that the multiple forms of the carp Smad4 cDNAs were not due to allelic variations. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)/Southern hybridizations showed different expression patterns among the four types of Smad4s. These results suggest that some of carp Smad4s have deviated from the original function of Smad4 through vertebrate evolution, and regulated the TGF-beta signaling pathway by changing the expression level in tissues.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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