Send to

Choose Destination
J Card Fail. 2005 May;11(4):288-92.

Symptoms in patients with heart failure are prognostic predictors: insights from COMET.

Author information

Institute of Nursing, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, SE 405-30 Göteborg, Sweden.

Erratum in

  • J Card Fail. 2005 Jun;11(5):404.



Although functional status, as assessed by the New York Heart Association classification, is known to be a powerful prognostic marker in chronic heart failure (CHF), the significance of individual symptoms such as breathlessness and fatigue are unknown.


To assess the relative importance of self-reported severity of symptoms as predictors of outcomes in CHF.


All 3029 patients randomized in the Carvedilol or Metoprolol European Trial (ie, COMET) study were included in the analysis. Mean follow-up was 58 months. Symptoms were assessed by 5-point scales. In a univariate analysis, worse scores for breathlessness, orthopnea and fatigue were all significantly related to increased mortality (all P < .0001) and development of worsening heart failure. In a multivariate Cox regression analysis including 16 baseline covariates, only the symptom of breathlessness remained significantly related to mortality (risk ratio [RR] 1.14 per unit: 95% CI 1.04-1.26; P = .01). Fatigue, but not breathlessness, remained a significant predictor for developing worsening heart failure (RR 1.09 per unit; 95% CI 1.02-1.18; P = .02).


Fatigue and breathlessness, common symptoms in CHF, have important and independent long-term prognostic implications. Accordingly, symptoms need to be effectively evaluated not only because symptom alleviation is a target for treatment, but also because they guide prognosis in patients with CHF.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center